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Science Head

科研主管

Dr Lucille Alexander has over 9 years experience working in the field of nutrition across a wide variety of pet species including cat, dog, horse, bird and fish at WALTHAM®. Since joining WALTHAM® Lucille has been involved in research that has generated over 20 peer reviewed publications.
在威豪®中心,Lucille Alexander博士拥有9年多的营养学领域工作经验,对象涉及各种宠物 ,包括猫、犬、马、鸟类和鱼类。自从加入威豪®中心后,Lucille便一直从事研究工作,发表了20多篇同行评审文章。

Key Message

关键信息

Cats cannot just be considered small dogs. They are different species with very different dietary requirements.

不能仅仅将猫看作是体型较小的犬。它们是不同的种类,有着截然不同的膳食要求。

There are some key differences in gastrointestinal physiology between dogs and cats (Maskell and Johnson 1993): 猫与犬在胃肠生理学 方面存在关键的差异(Maskell & Johnson 1993):

•    The cat’s small intestine is shorter than the dog’s (even when corrected for overall body length), with a shorter transit time.

•    猫的肠道比犬短(即便根据身体的总长度进行校正),食物的停留时间也就较短。

•    The cat has a slightly less well-developed caecum than the dog.

•    猫的盲肠发育也不及犬。

•    The gastric mucosa in the two species differs.

•    两个种类的宠物胃粘膜也有不同之处。

•    The dentition of the dog includes molars for crushing plant material, whereas the cat lacks these teeth.

•    犬的牙齿包含有用于磨碎植物的臼齿,而猫则没有。

Background

背景情况

Reproduced from Grandjean D, Buckley C, Charlton C, Merrill R, Morris P, Stevenson A. WALTHAM® Pocket Book of Essential Nutrition for Cats and Dogs. Editors: Grandjean D, Butterwick R. Beyond Design Solutions Ltd, London, UK. 2009, pages 10-11 摘自Grandjean D, Buckley C, Charlton C, Merrill R, Morris P, Stevenson著《威豪®口袋书之猫犬的基本营养》,由Grandjean D, Butterwick R.编辑,Design Solutions Ltd 出版, 伦敦, UK. 2009,第10-11页
Reproduced from Grandjean D, Buckley C, Charlton C, Merrill R, Morris P, Stevenson A. WALTHAM® Pocket Book of Essential Nutrition for Cats and Dogs. Editors: Grandjean D, Butterwick R. Beyond Design Solutions Ltd, London, UK. 2009, pages 10-11 摘自Grandjean D, Buckley C, Charlton C, Merrill R, Morris P, Stevenson著《威豪®口袋书之猫犬的基本营养》由Grandjean D, Butterwick R.编辑, Design Solutions Ltd 出版, 伦敦, UK. 2009,第10-11页

图1:犬与猫的消化系统(Grandjean et al. 2009)

Figure 1: The digestive system of dogs and cats (Grandjean et al. 2009)

Reproduced from Maskell IE, Johnson JV. Digestion and Absorption. In: The Waltham® Book of Companion Animal Nutrition. Editor: Burger IH.Pergamon Press, Oxford, UK. 1993, pages 25-44
摘自Maskell IE, Johnson JV.著《消化与吸收:威豪®小册子之伴侣动物的营养》,Burger IH编,英国牛津Pergamon Press出版社出版,1993,第25-44页
Reproduced from Maskell IE, Johnson JV. Digestion and Absorption. In: The Waltham® Book of Companion Animal Nutrition. Editor: Burger IH.Pergamon Press, Oxford, UK. 1993, pages 25-44摘自 Maskell IE, Johnson JV.著《消化与吸收:威豪®小册子之伴侣动物的营养》,Burger IH编,英国牛津Pergamon Press出版社出版, 1993,第25-44页

Figure 2: Anatomy of the jaw of dogs and cats (Maskell and Johnson 1993)

图2:犬与猫的下颌解剖图(Maskell & Johnson 1993 )

Table 1: Anatomy of the jaw of dogs and cats (Maskell and Johnson 1993)

表1:犬与猫的下颌解剖图(Maskell & Johnson 1993)

Reproduced from Maskell IE, Johnson JV. Digestion and Absorption. In: The Waltham® Book of Companion Animal Nutrition. Editor: Burger IH.Pergamon Press, Oxford, UK. 1993, pages 25-44摘自 Maskell IE, Johnson JV.著《消化与吸收:威豪®小册子之伴侣动物的营养》,Burger IH编,英国牛津Pergamon Press出版社出版, 1993,第25-44页

Table 2: Intestine lengths relative to body length and typical average digesta transit times (Maskell and Johnson 1993)

表2:小肠长度与身体长度比较及常见平均食糜通过时间

Reproduced from Maskell IE, Johnson JV. Digestion and Absorption. In: The Waltham® Book of Companion Animal Nutrition. Editor: Burger IH.Pergamon Press, Oxford, UK. 1993, pages 25-44摘自 Maskell IE, Johnson JV.著《消化与吸收:威豪®小册子之伴侣动物的营养》,Burger IH编,英国牛津Pergamon Press出版社出版, 1993,第25-44页

Dietary Requirements

膳食需求

Dogs and cats have distinctly different dietary requirements. The cat is an obligate carnivore whereas the dog is an omnivore. The cat’s absolute requirement for nutrients derived from a meat-based diet arises from metabolic peculiarities in this species.

犬和猫拥有截然不同的膳食需求。猫是专性食肉动物,而犬则是杂食动物。猫对于营养素的绝对需求源自以肉为基础的膳食,这是由该物种新陈代谢 特点所决定的。

The nutritional peculiarities of the cat were summarised in a WALTHAM review by Legrand-Defretin in 1994:

Legrand-Defretin1994年所做的一份威豪中心评估报告中便总结了猫的营养需求特征,即:

•    The cat has a higher requirement for dietary protein than the dog.

•    猫对于膳食蛋白质的需求比犬要高。

•    Taurine is an essential nutrient for the cat, and must be present in the diet. The cat has a lower capacity to synthesise taurine than the dog and cannot meet its taurine requirement from dietary sulphur-containing amino acids.

•    对猫而言,牛磺酸是至关重要的营养素,是猫的膳食中必须含有的营养。猫合成牛磺酸的能力比犬低,膳食中提供的含硫氨基 酸无法满足其自身对蛋白质的需求。

•    The cat cannot synthesise sufficient nicotinic acid from tryptophan.

•    猫无法从色氨酸中合成足够的烟酸。

•    The cat is unable to convert carotene to retinol and, therefore, cannot satisfy its vitamin A requirements with a herbivorous diet.

•    猫无法将胡萝卜素转化为视黄醇,因此如果吃素它就无法满足自身对维生素A的需求。

•    The cat cannot convert sufficient linoleic acid to meet its requirement for arachidonic acid.

•    猫无法转化足够的亚油酸以满足自身对花生四烯酸的需求。

•    The cat seems to be unable to cope with high levels of carbohydrate in its diet and appears to be in a constant state of gluconeogenesis.

•     猫似乎无法消化含高碳水化合物的食物,似乎总是处于糖异生的状态中。

These differences underpin the importance of formulating diets specifically designed to meet the nutritional needs of cats and dogs.

正是由于这些差别,所以专门设计食谱以满足猫和犬的营养需求是很重要的。

A thorough understanding of the nutrient requirements of both species is essential to enable formulation of nutritionally complete and balanced diets. Although this sounds simple, ensuring that all nutrients are present in the right balance and for the right number of calories is a very complex process of recipe design and optimisation. Worldwide, research is still ongoing and the nutritional guidelines for both cats and dogs are constantly being refined and updated (Butterwick et al. 2011). WALTHAM® plays a key role in progressing the knowledge of this area of nutrition.

透彻了解这两个物种的营养需求对于制定营养全面均衡的食谱是很有必要的。这听起来简单,但是在食谱设计和优化的过程中,要确保它能包含所有 的营养素,各营养素互相均衡,且提供合理的卡路里,是很复杂的。在世界各地,此方面的研究仍在开展中,对猫和犬的营养原则也经常改进和更新 (Butterwick et al. 2011)威豪®在深化该领域的营养知识方面发挥着关键作用。

Energy Content of Petfood - Key Message

宠物食品的能量含量-关键信息

WALTHAM® has contributed to understanding how to calculate the energy content of pet food by:

威豪®在了解如何计算宠物食物的能量含量方面做出了贡献:

•    Showing that the energy content of petfood can be calculated using validated formulae.

•    说明宠物食品的能量含量可以通过验证公式计算。

Background

背景情况

The amount of fat, protein, and carbohydrate in a diet determines its energy content.

膳食中脂肪、蛋白质和碳水化合物的数量决定了它的能量含量。

•    Gross energy (GE) content – the total possible energy that could be released if the food underwent complete oxidation.

•    总能量(GE)含量-如果食物经过完整的氧化过程能够释放出的总能量。

•    Digestible energy (DE) content – that energy which is digested and absorbed (GE minus faecal losses).

•    消化能(DE)含量-被消化和吸收的能量(总能量减去排泄损失)

•    Metabolisable energy (ME) content – that energy which is utilised by the tissues (DE minus urinary and other losses).

•    代谢能(ME)含量-被组织利用的能量(消化能减去尿液及其他损失)

The energy content of a diet depends upon its macronutrient composition. The digestibility of prepared petfood is also affected by other factors including the animal eating it, processing (for example canned versus dry diets) and ingredients (for example the amount and type of fibre).

膳食的能量含量取决于其常量营养素组成。预制宠物食品的可消化性也受到了其他因素的影响,包括动物的进食过程、食物加工过程(例如罐装食品 和干饲料)和膳食成分(例如纤维的数量和种类)。

Why WALTHAM® is Interested

威豪®中心感兴趣的原因

To accurately measure dietary ME content is complex, since energy lost in urine, faeces, secretions, and gasses must be accounted for. Therefore, simple formulae were developed to predict the ME of a food based on its fat, protein, and carbohydrate content.

准确测量膳食代谢能含量比较复杂,因为必须将尿液、粪便、分泌物和废气中的能量损失算到里面。因此建立了简单公式以食物的脂肪、蛋白质和碳 水化合物含量为基础来预测食物的代谢能,。

To start with, these equations were derived from studies in humans, with protein contributing 4 kcal/g, fat 9 kcal/g, and carbohydrate 4 kcal/g (Atwater factors). These factors work very well for highly digestible diets. However, digestibility in cats can be somewhat lower than in dogs (Kendall et al. 1982a). Furthermore, the factors are less accurate when applied to foods with a higher content of nonstarch-polysaccharides; such as legumes, salad, fruit or high-fibre cereal products (Kienzle 2002a).

刚开始,从人类研究数据中提取了等式,蛋白质含量为4千焦/克, 脂肪为9千焦/克,碳水化合物为4千焦/克。利用这些系数只有当食物消化性较高时 才更准确。但是猫对食物的消化能力比犬要低些(Kendall et al. 1982a)。此外,对于非淀粉多糖含量较高的食物而言,这些系数的准确性 便降低了。非淀粉多糖含量高的食物包括豆类、色拉、水果或高纤维谷类食品(Kienzle 2002a)。

The enormous variety of petfood on the market nowadays provides a challenge to understanding how best to calculate its energy content. Current products vary in format (dry, canned, semi-moist) but also in fibre (crude and fermentable) content. Furthermore, formulations have undergone considerable modification to meet the specialist needs of, for example, body weight reduction or convalescence.

现在,市场上的宠物食品种类繁多,这对了解如何更好地计算食品的能量含量是一个挑战。目前的产品在形式(干制食物、罐装和半干制品)和纤维 含量上有所不同。此外,食物配方也经历了很多改进,以满足独特的需求,例如减轻体重或康复期的需求。

The predictive factors therefore required testing and validation in feeding studies with cats and dogs.

因此在研究猫和犬的喂养时需要对预测系数进行测试和验证。

Discovery

发现

The energy content of petfood can be calculated using validated formulae

利用经验证的公式来计算宠物食品能量含量

Feeding studies at WALTHAM® confirmed that when the then widely-used modified Atwater factors were applied to prepared petfood they overestimated ME (Kendall et al. 1982b; Kendall et al. 1982c). The Atwater factors were subsequently further modified for prepared petfood (see Burger 1993). Feeding studies at WALTHAM® in which DE measured in vivo was compared with predicted ME confirmed that the new values generally gave a good estimate of the energy available to the dog or cat for the petfoods on the market at that time (Burger 1993).

威豪®的宠物喂养研究证明,将当时广为利用且经过修正的阿德华特因子用于预制宠物食品时,消化能被过高估计了 (Kendall et al. 1982b; Kendall et al. 1982c)。随后进一步依照预制宠物食品对阿德华特因子进行了修正(见Burger 1993)。威 豪®的饲养研究先在活的有机体内计算消化能,然后与预测的代谢能对比,研究证明新的数值通常能够很好地估算出当时市售的宠物食品 中能为犬或猫所用的能量(Burger 1993)。

Further research was undertaken in collaboration with Ellen Kienzle, and scientists at the Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Munich, Germany, and Institut für Ernährung der Veterinärmedizinischen Universität, Austria.

威豪®中心与Ellen Kienzle、德国慕尼黑大学以及奥地利维也纳兽医大学营养学院的科学家们合作开展了更多研究。

These studies have continued to progress the understanding of how best to calculate the energy content of petfoods, particularly with respect to the impact of fibre content (Earle et al. 1998; Kienzle et al. 2001; Kienzle et al. 2002b). The research resulted in a new interactive model for ME prediction of dog food (Figure. 3) based on prediction of apparent digestibility of energy by the fibre content of the diet (Kienzle et al. 1998a; Kienzle et al. 1998b):

这些研究加深了人们对如何最准确地计算宠物食物的能量含量的认识,尤其是纤维素含量的影响(Earle et al. 1998; Kienzle et al. 2001; Kienzle et al. 2002b)。研究设计了一种新的互动模式,通过膳食中的纤维素含量估算能量表观消化率(Kienzle et al. 1998a; Kienzle et al. 1998b)来预测犬粮的代谢能(见图3)。

1.    Determine GE of diet (by bomb calorimetry)

测定膳食的总能量(通过弹式量热法计算)

2.    Estimate apparent digestibility of GE by crude fibre or total fibre analysis

通过粗纤维或总纤维分析来估算总能量的表观消化率。

3.    Calculate DE

计算消化能

4.    Subtract 4.34 kJ/g protein to give ME

减去4.34千焦/克的蛋白质,得出代谢能

Reproduced from Kienzle E, Opitz B, Earle KE, Smith PM, Maskell IE, Iben C. An improved method for the estimation of energy in pet foods. J Nutr 1998.128(12supp):2806S-2808S
摘自Kienzle E, Opitz B, Earle KE, Smith PM, Maskell IE, Iben C.著《估算宠物食品能量的改良方法》, J Nutr 1998.128(12supp):2806S-2808S

Figure 3: Close correlation between measured ME of dog food and that predicted by the model (Keinzle et al. 1998a). Comparison of ME as experimentally determined (MEexp), calculated (MEcalc), and NRC-derived data (MENRC) in pooled data on prepared dog food. Own method (x using crude fibre and ■ using total fibre): MEcalc = 212 + 0.88   MEexp (kJ/100 g dry matter); r =×0.96; n = 194. NRC (◊): MENRC = 571 + 0.62  0.78; n =194

图3:犬粮中测出的代谢能与模型估算值之间的关系(Keinzle et al. 1998a)。比较预制犬粮的代谢能:代谢能实验测定值 (MEexp)、计算值(MEcalc)与合并数据中的NRC给出的代谢能值(MENRC)。我们的算法是(x为粗纤维,■是总纤维):MEcalc=212+0.88,MEexp (KJ/100g 干物质);r=0.96,n=194,NRC(◊):MENRC=571+0.62,MEexp(kJ/100g 干物质);r=0.78;n=194

 

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