MARS PETCARE ACADEMY 玛氏宠物护理学院

玛氏宠物护理学院

在中国,为宠物创造一个更美好的世界

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Key Message

关键信息

WALTHAM® has contributed to the understanding of body weight management in the cat by:

威豪®通过以下工作为了解猫的体重控制做出了贡献:

  • Establishing the first pet weight management referral clinic in Europe in collaboration with the University of Liverpool and Royal Canin.

  • 与利物浦大学和Royal Canin合作在欧洲建立了首个宠物体重控制转介诊所。

  • Developing the S.H.A.P.E™ system to help owners recognise weight issues in their pet.

  • 研制出S.H.A.P.E™体重自测系统,帮助饲主认识宠物的体重问题。

  • Developing the Feline Body Mass Index™, a non-invasive, simple, objective, reliable technique for assessing feline body fat content.

  • 建立猫体量指数™,这是一种无创的、简单、客观、可靠的评估猫体脂肪含量的技术。

  • Generating epidemiological data on the prevalence and risk factors of obesity in cats.

  • 针对猫肥胖症的流行程度和风险因素获得流行病学数据。

  • Demonstrating that markers suggestive of insulin resistance are evident in obese cats and change with weight loss

  • 证明在肥胖猫的体内也存在胰岛素抵抗的征象,这一征象随着体重的减轻而发生改变。

  • Showing that caloric restriction can be used to achieve weight loss without the risk of hepatic lipidosis.

  • 说明可以通过限制饮食热量的方法来实现减重目的,并且没有肝脂沉积症的风险。

  • Demonstrating that carnitine can support weight loss in obese cats.

  • 证明肉碱有助于猫的减重

  • Demonstrating that a slow steady rate of weight loss is desirable to minimise lean tissue loss.

  • 证明缓慢、稳定的减重是避免肌肉组织减少的理想方法

  • Showing that increasing dietary water can help cats to keep the weight off after a weight loss programme.

  • 显示增加膳食中的水分能够帮助猫避免在减重成功后的反弹

      

Background

背景知识

Obesity is the accumulation of excessive amounts of body fat. Cats can be defined as being overweight if their bodyweight is 15% above ideal and classed as obese if they are more than 30% above their ideal weight. Being overweight or obese is common in pet cats, with prevalence estimates in the range 19–52% (Scarlett et al. 1994; Robertson 1999; Russell et al. 2000; Lund et al. 2005; Courcier et al. 2010).

肥胖是过多脂肪在体内的堆积。如果猫的实际体重比理想体重超出15%,则可被视为超重,如果超过30%则为肥胖。超重或肥胖在宠物猫中是很常见的,估计19-52%的宠物猫存在这种情况(Scarlett et al. 1994; Robertson 1999; Russell et al. 2000; Lund et al. 2005; Courcier et al. 2010)。

Obesity is a consequence of energy intake exceeding requirement at some stage in the cat’s life. Risk factors include neutering, middle-age, a sedentary lifestyle, male gender, and some feeding practices (Scarlett et al. 1994; Russell et al. 2000; Harper et al.2001).

肥胖是猫的一生中某阶段能量摄入超过需求的结果。风险因素包括绝育、老龄、缺乏运动的生活方式、雄性猫和其他进食行为(Scarlett et al. 1994; Russell et al. 2000; Harper et al. 2001)。

Maintaining a healthy body weight is important for the cat’s health. Obese cats are at increased risk of arthritis, diabetes mellitus, hepatic lipidosis, and early mortality (Laflamme 2012). A prospective study in the USA found that obese cats are 3.9 times as likely to develop diabetes mellitus, 2.3 times as likely to develop nonallergic skin conditions, and 4.9 times as likely to develop lameness requiring veterinary care (Scarlett and Donoghue 1998).

维持健康的体重对保障猫的健康至为重要。肥胖的猫患关节炎、糖尿病、脂肪肝和早逝的风险会增多(Laflamme 2012)。美国的一项前瞻性调查发现,肥胖的猫患糖尿病的比率是健康猫的3.9倍,非过敏性皮肤炎症的比率是2.3倍,患残疾从而需要兽医照料的比率是4.9倍(Scarlett & Donoghue 1998)。

 

Why WALTHAM® is Interested

威豪®为何对此感兴趣

Obesity is the most common form of malnutrition that affects pets. Obese pets are not healthy pets because of the increased risk of obesity associated conditions that impact on health. In order to provide diets optimised for the treatment of obesity and maintenance of a healthy body weight (prevention of obesity), it is vital to fully understand how much to feed cats, what to feed, and how to feed it. Research in this area is ongoing.

肥胖是影响宠物的营养失调最常见的表现。肥胖的宠物并不健康,因为肥胖会加大身体出现其他有损健康的问题的风险。为了优化膳食结构以便治疗肥胖和维持健康体重(预防肥胖),必须要彻底理解应该给猫喂多少食物以及如何喂养。此领域的研究持续进行中。

 

Approach

方法

Together with the University of Liverpool and Royal Canin, WALTHAM® established the first pet weight management referral clinic in Europe in 2003.

与利物浦大学和Royal Canin一道,威豪®2003年建立了欧洲首个宠物体重管理转介诊所。

A focus has also been placed on tools that support veterinarians and owners in assessing body condition. An easy-to-use algorithm-based system was developed to help owners recognise weight issues in their pet, and a non-invasive way to objectively assess feline body fat content. The epidemiology of obesity was studied to better understand the risk factors. Safe regimens for weight loss in obese cats have been investigated, and options for the maintenance of body weight after a weight loss regimen have been explored.

威豪®还关注兽医和饲主能够评估宠物身体状况的检测手段。我们建立了一个简单易用并且以计算程序为基础的系统,帮助饲主认识宠物的体重问题,通过无创手段客观评估猫的体脂肪含量。从流行病学方面对肥胖进行研究,以便更深入理解导致肥胖的风险因素。我们研究了安全无害的减重法,并探讨了减重后维持体重的可选方案。

 

Capability Development (Clinic)

能力构建(诊所)

In collaboration with the University of Liverpool and Royal Canin, WALTHAM® established the first pet weight management referral clinic in Europe.

与利物浦大学和Royal Canin合作,威豪®在欧洲建立了首个宠物体重管理转介诊所。

The Royal Canin Weight Management Clinic at the University of Liverpool’s Small Animal Hospital, UK, was established in 2003. It is the first pet weight management referral clinic in Europe and was set up to address the direct health concerns linked to obesity and improve understanding of pet obesity.

英国利物浦大学小动物医院的Royal Canin体重管理转介诊所建立于2003年。它是欧洲首个体重管理转介诊所,目的是为了应对肥胖直接带来的危害健康问题,增进人们对宠物肥胖的认识。

Veterinarians from any general practice in the UK can refer overweight cats to the clinic. The patients receive a thorough medical examination, and are then given a specific dietary plan and exercise regimen to follow over subsequent weeks.

英国各地的执业兽医可以将超重的猫转诊至该诊所。患猫将接受全面检查,然后为其制定专门的膳食计划和锻炼计划,在随后几周内根据计划接受治疗。

Whilst treating overweight cats, the clinic compiles a large amount of data about the obesity problem in pets. This information is used to improve the understanding of the causes of obesity in pets, enabling the refinement of methods of treatment and prevention. With sufficient cases, it will be possible to establish whether certain breeds have a higher risk of obesity. The link between obesity and disease are under investigation, with the aim of understanding how such diseases arise so that appropriate treatment and prevention strategies can be recommended.

在治疗超重猫时,诊所收集了大量关于宠物肥胖问题的数据。这一信息被用来增进对宠物肥胖原因的认识,有助于人们改进治疗方法和预防手段。累积足够的案例后,诊所将能够确定某些特定种类的猫是否更容易患上肥胖。诊所正在研究肥胖和疾病之间的关联,目的是认识这些与肥胖相关的疾病是如何出现的,从而推荐适当的治疗和预防策略。

 

Capability Development (S.H.A.P.E™)

能力构建(S.H.A.P.E™)

The S.H.A.P.E™ system helps owners recognise weight issues in their pet

S.H.A.P.E™系统帮助饲主认识到宠物的体重问题

Existing body condition scoring charts for cats (Laflamme 1997) require training and a degree of expertise, making them less useful for pet owners to use themselves.

现有的猫体况得分表(Laflamme 1997)需要饲主参加培训和具备一定程度的专业知识,对于饲主而言这些表格缺乏实用性。

The S.H.A.P.E™ (Size, Health And Physical Evaluation) system was designed with pet owners in mind, and was developed and validated in collaboration with the University of Liverpool (Figure 1). It uses similar visual and palpable characteristics as the previous scoring systems, but provides a series of questions prompting the owner to examine their pet in a systematic and sequential manner. This allows the owner to assess the fat covering the ribs, and directs them to select the most appropriate body condition score (from 7 categories: A, underweight; to G, obese).

与利物浦大学合作开发和验证的S.H.A.P.E™(体型大小、健康和身体评估)系统在设计时充分考虑了宠物的饲主的情况(图1)。它具备与先前的评分系统类似的可视化、可感知的特点,但是提供了一系列“问答”,引导饲主按照一定步骤和顺序检查宠物。这种方法让饲主可以评估覆盖在肋骨上的脂肪,指导他们选择最恰当的身体状况得分(7类:从A过轻到G肥胖)。

Figure 1: WALTHAM® S.H.A.P.E™ guide for cats

图1:威豪®中心针对猫的S.H.A.P.E™系统指南

 

The S.H.A.P.E™ system was validated in 20 client-owned cats (German et al. 2006) referred to University of Liverpool clinics. The owners scored their pet using the S.H.A.P.E™ system alongside people experienced in using S.H.A.P.E™. Cats also underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) to determine the amount of body fat. The study showed that the scoring system was reliable in the hands of experienced operators, and that correlation was good between experienced operators and scores determined independently by the owners who had no prior experience of body condition scoring. The S.H.A.P.E™ system also correlated well with body fat mass calculated by DXA (Figure 2).

在转诊到利物浦大学诊所20只客户拥有的猫身上验证了S.H.A.P.E™系统。饲主与拥有使用经验的人一道利用S.H.A.P.E™系统为宠物评分。通过双能X线骨密度仪(DXA)测定猫的体脂肪。研究发现评分系统由经验丰富的操作员使用时比较可靠,而熟练的操作员得出的分数与毫无经验的饲主独立测定的分数相差不大。S.H.A.P.E™系统评分与DXA计算得出的机体脂肪含量也基本一致(见图2)。

Figure 2: Association between estimated percentage of body fat, determined by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and body condition score determined by the S.H.A.P.E™ system (German et al. 2006). Correlation between body fat measured by DXA and the S.H.A.P.E™ score, P图2:估算的体脂率与双能X线骨密度仪(DXA)测定值及S.H.A.P.E™系统体况评分之间的关系(German et al. 2006)。DXA测定的体脂率和S.H.A.P.E™得分之间的接近度,P<0.0001。S代表该模型的标准差估值。R2代表测定系数,以表明该模型能够解释多少响应变量。通过简单的线性回归分析数据。

This study shows that the S.H.A.P.E™ system is a reliable and useful way for owners to monitor their pet’s body condition.

该研究显示S.H.A.P.E™系统是一个可靠有用的手段,方便饲主监控宠物的体况。

 

Capability Development (FBMI)

能力构建(FBMI)

The Feline Body Mass Index™ is a non-invasive, simple, objective, reliable technique for assessing feline body fat content

猫体量指数™是一种无创、简单、客观、可靠的评估猫体脂肪含量的技术。

 

Although body fat content can be measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), this is not always practical or possible in the clinical setting. WALTHAM® identified the need for a non-invasive technique that can be performed rapidly and reliably during a clinical examination.

虽然可以通过双能X线骨密度仪(DXA)测定体脂肪含量,在临床中这种手段并不总是实用或可行的。威豪®认识到有必要开发一种能够在临床检查中迅速可靠的无创检测技术。

WALTHAM® scientists carefully measured various anatomical sites in 60 healthy adult domestic shorthair cats. The measurements included height, chest depth, rib cage circumference, girth, body length, elbow diameter, forelimb length, and the length of the lower hindlimb (from the middle of the patella to the dorsal tip of the calcaneal process; the leg index measure). These zoometric measures were then related to each cat’s body fat content, as measured using DXA (Hawthorne and Butterwick 2000 a,b).

威豪®的科学家们小心测量了60只健康的家养成年短毛猫的各个解剖部位,包括高度、胸厚、胸围、腰围、体重、肘部直径、前肢长度以及下肢长度(从膝盖骨中间到根骨突端部;腿指数测量值),然后再将这些动物测量数据与通过DXA测定的每只猫的体脂肪含量联系起来(Hawthorne and Butterwick 2000 a,b)。

An algorithm programme was used to determine which zoometric measures correlated well with DXA results. The resulting equation (Figure 3), based on rib cage circumference and leg index measure, described more than 85% of the variation in fat content. Although the leg index measure is not itself a predictor of body fat content, it improves the predictive power of rib cage circumference by helping to correct for variation in body shape and size.

通过计算程序来确定哪些动物测定值与DXA测定结果相符。根据胸围与肢体指数测量值而得出的等式(见图3)描述了多达85%的含脂率变量。虽然肢体指数测量值本身并无法预测体脂含量,但是它有助于纠正体态和体型大小的变量,从而提高胸围的预测准确度。

 

Figure 3: Relationship between percentage body fat as predicted by the Feline Body Mass Index™ and measured by DXA (R2 = 85%, P<0.0001) (Hawthorne and Butterwick 2000a)

图3:猫体格指数™预测的体脂率与DXA测定值之间的关系(R2=85%,P<0.0001)(Hawthorne and Butterwick 2000a)

 

Validation studies showed that the technique could be used by relatively inexperienced people, and provided accurate assessment of body fat in cats weighing 3–9 kg.

验证过程显示这一技术可由经验相对较少的人使用,能对体重范围在3-9公斤的猫进行准确的体脂率评估。

The Feline Body Mass Index is shown in Figure 4.

猫体量指数如图4所示。

Figure 4: Feline Body Mass Index™ (Hawthorne and Butterwick 2000a)
图4:猫体量指数™ (Hawthorne and Butterwick 2000a)

Discovery (Epidemiology)

发现(流行病学)

Lifestyle factors such as being neutered, middle aged, inactive and having free access to food are risk factors for obesity

绝育、老龄、不运动和随意进食等生活方式是导致肥胖的风险因素

In order to understand the extent of the obesity problem in cats it is necessary to understand how many cats in the population are obese.  Identifying risk factors is also useful when designing strategies help owners manage their cat's weight more effectively.  WALTHAM® has contributed to the body of epidemiological data on feline obesity.

为了理解猫肥胖问题的严重程度,有必要掌握到底有多少肥胖猫。确定风险因素还有助于设计策略以帮助饲主更有效管理猫的体重。威豪®为提供猫肥胖问题的流行病学数据做出了贡献。

A study in collaboration with Cornell University, New York and Nutrition Support Services, Virginia, that assessed over 2000 cats presented to 31 USA veterinary hospitals found that 25% were overweight or obese (Scarlett et al. 1994). Risk factors included apartment dwelling, inactivity, middle age, being male, neutered, of mixed breeding; and some dietary factors (Scarlett et al. 1994).

威豪®与纽约康奈尔大学及维吉尼亚州营养支持服务机构合作开展研究,评估了超过2000只被送往美国31家宠物医院的猫,发现25%的猫超重或是肥胖(Scarlett et al. 1994)。风险因素包括公寓式的居住环境、缺乏运动、老龄、雄性猫、绝育、品种混合以及其他一些膳食因素(Scarlett et al. 1994)。

The influence of feeding regimen on body condition was studied in 136 cats in UK homes in collaboration with a UK veterinary practice. Four main factors were identified which were related to body condition score, including neuter status, age, frequency of treat feeding, and ad libitum (constant) access to food (Russell et al. 2000).

与英国一家兽医执业机构合作,通过对英国136只猫的研究分析了饲养方法对体况的影响。研究确定了影响体况评分的四大因素,包括绝育、老龄、喂饲过频和随意(持续)获得食物(Russell et al.  2000)。

Another study evaluated the effect of neutering on body condition and composition in 60 female cats (Harper et al. 2001). Of these, 49 had ad libitum access to food and 11 had their food allowances controlled with the aim of maintaining a stable bodyweight. In the year following neutering, bodyweight increased by an average of 31% in the cats with ad libitum access to food compared with 7.5% for the cats with restricted access to food (Harper et al. 2001). This confirms that neutering is a risk factor for obesity in cats fed ad libitum, but that this can be controlled by regulating food intake (Harper et al. 2001).

威豪®还对60只雌性猫进行研究,评估了绝育对体况和身体组织构成的影响(Harper et al. 2001)。其中,49只猫能够随意获得食物,11只则有食物限额,目的是让它们维持稳定的体重。经过绝育手术后,进食不受限的猫平均体重增加达31%,而进食受限的猫则为7.5%(Harper et al. 2001)。这说明对于可以随意进食的猫而言绝育手术是导致其肥胖的风险因素,不过可以通过调节进食量来控制体重。

These studies provide insight into the risk factors for obesity in cats.

这些研究让我们深入认识了导致猫肥胖的风险因素。

Discovery (Pathogenesis)

发现(发病机理)

Markers suggestive of insulin resistance are evident in obese cats, and change with weight loss

肥胖猫体内存在明显的胰岛素抵抗标记暗示,而这一作用随着体重减轻而变化

  

Human obesity is often associated with insulin resistance, but it was unclear if obese cats were similarly affected.

人类的肥胖问题往往与胰岛素抵抗有关,但过去我们不清楚肥胖的猫是否也会受到类似的影响。

A study was conducted in collaboration with the University of Liverpool, Royal Canin, and the University of Murcia, Spain to measure circulating metabolic and inflammation-related markers in obese cats before and after weight loss (Tvarijonaviciute et al. 2012).

威豪®与利物浦大学、Royal Canin及西班牙穆尔西亚大学合作研究,测定肥胖的猫在减重前后的新陈代谢指标和炎症指标(Tvarijonaviciute et al. 2012)。

A total of 37 overweight neutered cats (median body weight 6.85 kg, range 4.70–10.30 kg) referred to the Royal Canin Weight Management Clinic were studied, and an individualised weight-loss programme was devised for each cat (Tvarijonaviciute et al. 2012). Of these, 22 cats achieved their target weight. Before and after weight loss, blood samples were taken and body fat mass was determined by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. As an indirect assessment of insulin sensitivity, homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) values were calculated.

总共37只超重且绝育的猫(平均体重6.85kg,体重范围4.70kg-10.30kg)被送到了Royal Canin体重管理中心接受研究,中心为每只猫设计了专门的减重计划(Tvarijonaviciute et al. 2012)。37只猫当中,22只达到了目标体重。减重前后均采集了血样,并通过双能X线骨密度仪测定体脂重。作为对胰岛素敏感性的间接评估手段,计算了稳态模式评估(HOMA)数值。

Significant increases in plasma adiponectin (P=0.021) and IGF-1 (P=0.036) were seen after weight loss, whereas insulin (P<0.001) and HOMA (P=0.005) decreased significantly (Figure 5. Tvarijonaviciute et al. 2012).

血浆脂联素(P=0.021)有显著增加,减重后出现IGF-1(P=0.036),而胰岛素(P<0.001)和HOMA(P=0.005)急剧下降(见图5,Tvarijonaviciute et al. 2012)。

Figure 5: Changes in plasma analytes and enzyme activity with weight loss (Tvarijonaviciute et al. 2012). Box and whisker plots show plasma (A) adiponectin, (B) IGF-1, (C) glucose, (D) insulin, and (E) homeostasis glucose measurement (HOMA) before and after weight loss in 22 cats successfully completing a weight-loss programme. The boxes depict median (horizontal line) and interquartile range (top and bottom of box), the whiskers show the 10% to 90% range, and outliers are shown as separate points. Weight loss in obese cats led to significant increases in adiponectin (P=0.021) and IGF-1 (P=0.036) concentrations, whereas insulin concentration (P<0.001) and HOMA (P<0.001) both decreased significantly.
图5:减重引起的血液分析物和酶活性的变化(Tvarijonaviciute et al. 2012)。箱须图显示了22只成功完成减重训练的猫在减重前后血液中的(A)脂联素、(B)IGF-1、(C)葡萄糖、(D)胰岛素和(E)稳态葡萄糖测定值(HOMA)。箱型描绘的是中值(水平轴)和四分位差(箱型上下端),须型则显示的是10%-90%的范围,并在各个点标出了异常值。肥胖猫减重引起了脂联素(P=0.021)和IGF-1(P=0.036)浓度的显著增加,而胰岛素(P<0.001)和HOMA(P<0.001)浓度则大幅降低。

 

No significant changes were found in acute phase proteins (such as haptoglobin and serum amyloid A) after weight loss (Tvarijonaviciute et al. 2012).

减重后急性期蛋白没有明显变化(例如结合珠蛋白和血清淀粉样蛋白A)(Tvarijonaviciute et al. 2012)。

Multivariable linear regression analysis showed that lean tissue loss during weight management was associated with percentage weight loss (greater weight loss, greater lean tissue loss; R 0.71, P<0.001) and plasma adiponectin concentration before weight loss (lesser adiponectin, more lean tissue loss; R -0.52, P=0.023) (Tvarijonaviciute et al. 2012).

多元线性回归分析说明体重管理期间肌肉组织的减少与体重下降百分比(体重减少越多,肌肉组织的损耗越多;R 0.71, P<0.001)和减重前血浆脂联素浓度(脂联素水平越低,肌肉组织损耗越多;R -0.52, P=0.023)有关联(Tvarijonaviciute et al. 2012)。

This study shows that various metabolic abnormalities occur in feline obesity and changes with weight loss suggest an improved metabolic status.

此项研究显示肥胖的猫会患上各种代谢异常,而减重带来的变化能改善代谢状态。

 

Discovery (Hepatic Lipidosis)

发现(肝脂沉积症)

 

Weight loss can be achieved in cats using caloric restriction to 45–60% of maintenance requirements, without the risk of hepatic lipidosis

将食物的热量限制为维持健康所需热量的45-60%,在实现减重的目的的同时避免肝脂沉积症的风险。

Severe energy restriction in cats can result in hepatic lipidosis (Biourge et al. 1994), which can be fatal. It is therefore important that obese cats lose weight at a gradual rate.

对猫而言,严格限制热量会导致它患上可能会危及生命的肝脂沉积症(Biourge et al. 1994)。因此,肥胖的猫在减重时应按照循序渐进的速度进行,这点很重要。

In this study, conducted in collaboration with a small animal clinic in Denmark, a safe rate of weight loss was established. The 22 obese cats were fed a commercially-available diet designed to be nutritionally complete when fed for weight loss, at 60% of maintenance requirements, for up to 18 weeks (Butterwick et al. 1994). The average weight loss was 13.5% of body weight over the study (Butterwick et al. 1994). There was no significant change in alanine aminotransferase and a significant decrease (small in absolute terms) in alkaline phosphatase, indicating that the weight loss had no adverse effect on the liver (Butterwick et al. 1994). This study showed that providing dietary energy at 60% of maintenance requirements is sufficient to induce a slow and safe weight loss in obese cats.

威豪®与丹麦的一所小型动物诊所合作开展了此次研究,确定了安全的减重速度。将一种市售的、营养全面的猫粮喂给22只要减重的猫。食物的数量为维持健康需求量的60%,喂食时间为18周(Butterwick et al.1994)。整个研究中这些猫平均减去了13.5%的体重(Butterwick et al. 1994)。丙氨酸氨基转移酶并没有显著变化,碱性磷酸酶大幅减少(绝对数量较小),这说明减重并没有对肝脏造成副作用(Butterwick et al. 1994)。此项研究说明在膳食中提供维持健康所需能量的60%便足以让肥胖的猫缓慢、安全地减去体重。

Further support for the safety of caloric restriction was gained from data on lipoprotein metabolism in cats undergoing weight loss (Watson et al. 1995). Blood samples showed that in cats restricted to 45% or 60% of maintenance energy requirements, normal concentrations of very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were maintained and lipoprotein lipase was unaltered, suggesting that synthesis of very-low-density lipoprotein was not limited (Watson et al. 1995).

猫减重期间脂蛋白代谢的相关数据进一步证明了热量限制的安全性(Watson et al. 1995)。验血结果显示将猫的热量摄入限制为维持健康能量需求量的45%-60%,极低密度脂蛋白能维持正常浓度,而脂蛋白脂肪酶保持不变,这说明极低密度脂蛋白的合成并没有受到限制(Watson et al. 1995)。

These data show that this level of caloric restriction can be safely used to reduce weight in obese cats.

这些数据显示这种水平的热量限制能够安全用于猫的减重中。

 

Discovery (Carnitine)

发现(肉碱)

Carnitine can help support weight loss in obese cats

肉碱有助于猫的减重。

Carnitine plays a role in fatty acid metabolism, and deficiency is linked with hepatic lipidosis in humans. A study was undertaken to see if a supplement was beneficial for obese cats on a weight loss programme.

在人体中,肉碱在脂肪酸代谢作用中发挥一定作用,肉碱不足往往与脂肪肝有关。曾经开展了一项研究,探讨补充肉碱是否对于猫减重有益处。

A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial compared the effect of an L-carnitine supplement (250 mg/day, n=14) with placebo (n=10) in obese cats fed at 60% of maintenance requirements (Center et al. 2000). Median estimated baseline adiposity was 25% in both groups. Each cat’s target weight was established (60–80% of starting weight), depending on its level of obesity. This study was a collaboration between WALTHAM® and Cornell University, New York; Duke University Medical Center, North Carolina and the University of Alabama at Birmingham, USA.

在一项随机双盲安慰剂对照试验中,针对按照维持需求量60%的热量喂养的肥胖猫,与对照组(n=10)作比较,探讨了L-肉碱补充剂(250毫克/天,n=14)的效果(Center et al. 2000)。在两组中,肥胖症的平均基线估值均为25%。根据每只猫的肥胖程度,确定了它们的目标体重(起始体重的60%-80%)。此项研究由威豪®与纽约康奈尔大学、北卡罗来纳州Duke大学医疗中心和美国伯明翰Alabama大学合作进行。

With caloric restriction to 60% of maintenance requirements, obese cats receiving an oral L-carnitine supplement lost weight at a significantly faster rate than those receiving placebo (Center et al. 2000). Cats receiving carnitine lost weight at a median of 95 g (range 48–162 g) per week, compared with 71 g (41–111 g) per week for placebo cats (P=0.03) (Center et al. 2000). The rate of weight loss declined during the study. By 18 weeks, 43% of carnitine cats and 40% of placebo cats had achieved their target weight.

热量限制为维持需求量的60%,接受口服L-肉碱补充剂的猫减重的速度显著快于安慰剂组(Center et al.2000)。补充肉碱的猫每周平均减重95克(范围为48-162克),而安慰剂组的猫(P=0.03)每周平均减重71克(41-111克)(Center et al. 2000)。随着研究的进行减重的速度变慢。18周后,补充肉碱组43%的猫和安慰剂组40%的猫都达到了理想体重。

The percentage of cats achieving 90% of their targeted weight loss by week 18 was 64% for the carnitine group and 50% for placebo (Figure 6. Center et al. 2000).

18周后,达到目标体重90%的猫的比例,补充肉碱组为64%,安慰剂组为50%(Figure 6. Center et al. 2000)。

Figure 6: A greater percentage of cats supplemented with carnitine achieved 90% of their targeted weight loss at 18 weeks compared with placebo (Center et al. 2000)

图6:与安慰剂组相比,18周后补充肉碱组的猫达到目标体重90%的比例更高(Center et al. 2000)

 

This study shows that carnitine can help support weight loss in obese cats.

该研究说明肉碱有助于猫的减重。

Discovery (Lean Loss)

发现(肌肉组织的减少)

A slow, steady rate of weight loss is desirable to minimise lean tissue loss

缓慢、稳定的减重是避免肌肉组织减少的理想方法

Loss of lean body mass appears to be an inevitable consequence of weight loss, although minimising this is considered desirable since it must otherwise be replaced. In humans, more severe energy restriction is associated with higher losses of lean tissue (Prentice et al. 1991). However, the changes in body composition that occur with dietary energy restriction in cats were not known.

虽然尽可能避免减去肌肉是大家都希望的,但是减重似乎无可避免会带来肌肉的减少。对人而言,非常严格的能量摄入限制往往伴随着失去更多的肌肉组织(Prentice et al. 1991)。但是我们过去并不清楚猫的膳食能量限制会带来怎样的身体构成改变。

In a study at WALTHAM®, 13 overweight cats were fed a commercially-available low calorie diet for 18 weeks at an energy intake of about 60% of adult maintenance requirements (Butterwick and Markwell 1996). They lost an average of 18% of their initial body weight (about 1% per week), with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry confirming that the majority (91%) was from body fat and only 8% was from lean tissue (Butterwick and Markwell 1996). When energy intake was restricted to 45% of adult maintenance requirements, the rate of weight loss was about 1.3% per week (25% total) but 19% of this was from lean tissue and 80% from fat mass (Butterwick et al. 1995; Butterwick and Hawthorne 1998).

威豪®的一项研究中,对13只超重的猫喂食了市售的低热量食品,喂养时间为18周,能量摄入量为成年猫维持需求量的60%左右(Butterwick & Markwell 1996)。它们平均减去了18%的体重(每周大约1%),通过双能X线骨密度仪确定大多数(91%)减去的重量是体脂肪,只有8%是肌肉组织(Butterwick & Markwell 1996)。当能量摄入限制在成年猫维持需求量的45%时,减重的速度是每周1.3%左右(总共25%)。但是其中19%是肌肉组织,80%是脂肪(Butterwick et al. 1995; Butterwick and Hawthorne 1998)。

Another study was conducted in collaboration with the University of Liverpool and Royal Canin, with cats which had been referred to the Royal Canin Weight Management Clinic. This study found that, in cats losing 0.8% body weight per week, the proportion of lean tissue lost correlated with the overall weight loss (German et al. 2008). This time, though, the rate of weight loss and degree of caloric restriction did not have a significant impact on the proportions of fat and lean loss.

威豪®与利物浦大学及Royal Canin合作开展的另一项研究中,对转诊到Royal Canin体重管理诊所的猫进行了试验。研究发现对于每周减重0.8%的猫,减去的肌肉组织所占比例与减去的总体重相符合(German et al. 2008)。不过在此项研究中减重的速度和热量限制的程度并没有对脂肪和肌肉的减少比例造成重大影响。

The reason for these different findings isn’t clear, although the rates of weight loss differed and there may have been differences in the activity levels of the cats. Together, the studies show that higher rates of weight loss may have a less desirable effect on body composition in cats. Although some lean loss seems to be inevitable, especially in cats required to lose a large amount of weight, this may be minimised by slower rates of weight loss.

虽然减重速度不同,并且两项研究中猫的活动水平可能存在差异,但是我们并不清楚造成不同的结果的原因。总的来说,这些研究说明减重过快可能会对猫的体脂比例造成不如人意的影响。虽然肌肉的减少是无法避免的,尤其是需要减去大量重量的猫,但是可以通过放慢减重速度来将不良影响降到最低。

The importance of considering body composition changes when designing weight-loss regimens was underlined in a study at WALTHAM® looking at the effect of energy density on food intake in cats. Over 70 days, cats fed a diet diluted with water did not adjust their food intake to compensate for the decreased energy density (Morris et al. 2006). The effect on body weight was very variable, with some cats maintaining weight and others losing weight (Morris et al. 2006). Despite this, 9 of the 26 cats gained grams of body fat, measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, reflecting a disproportionate lean loss when fed the lower energy density diet (Morris et al. 2006). This study suggests that changes in body composition are not always reflected in changes in body weight.

威豪®的一项研究强调在设计减重方法时应考虑到身体构成改变的重要性,该研究探讨了能量密度对食品摄入的作用。在70多天里,猫吃的是一种用水冲淡的饮食,并且没有调整猫的食物摄入量以补偿减少的能量密度(Morris et al. 2006)。这对体重的影响是不确定的,有些猫维持体重,另一些则减重了(Morris et al. 2006)。尽管如此,经双能X线骨密度仪测定,26只猫中9只猫体脂肪增加了几克,这反映了在喂食较低能量密度膳食时出现了不成比例的肌肉组织减少(Morris et al. 2006)。此项研究说明身体构成的改变并不总是反应在体重的变化上。

These studies show why it is important to fully understand the weight loss process.

这些研究说明,全面了解体重减轻的过程是重要的。

Discovery (Weight Maintenance)

发现(体重维持)

Reducing the energy density of the diet by adding water can slow the rate of weight gain in cats

通过加水来降低膳食的能量密度,能够使猫的体重增加速度变慢

The total number of calories fed to cats is of ultimate importance in supporting the maintenance of healthy weight.  However, WALTHAM® scientists were also interested in understanding whether the moisture content of the food could influence calorie intake and weight gain in cats when in an overfeeding situation.

猫摄入的总能量对于维持健康体重至关重要。但是,威豪®的科学家们还感兴趣的是在过量喂食的情况下食物的水分含量是否能够影响热量摄入以及猫的体重增加。

In a series of studies conducted in partnership with the University of Aberdeen, WALTHAM® scientists found that cats fed a dry diet with a total of 50% moisture had a slower rate of weight gain and were more physically active than those cats fed the dry diet alone containing 10% moisture. This was the first time a hydrated diet had been associated with a lower rate of weight gain and increased physical activity in cats.

在与Aberdeen大学合作开展的系列研究中,威豪®的科学家们发现与喂食含10%水分的干猫粮的猫相比,喂食水分含量为50%的干猫粮的猫体重增加速度要慢一些而且更加活跃。这是首次将含水份的膳食与猫的增重速度变慢以及身体活跃性增强联系在一起。

After 6 weeks of being fed a dry food at a calorie intake set at 80% of habitual energy intake cats were offered ad libitum access for two 45-minute periods each day to dry food (0% hydrated; total dietary moisture 10%) or the dry food with additional water (40% hydrated, 50% total dietary moisture), for 3 weeks each.  Between each diet phase cats returned to a period of controlled calorie intake.

给猫饲喂能量为习惯性能量摄入80%的干猫粮,6周后,每天让猫有两次机会吃干猫粮(0%水分,膳食中总水分为10%),每次45分钟时间内自由进食,或者喂给它们干猫粮加额外的水(40%水分,膳食中总水分为50%),两个阶段各用三周时间。在两个阶段之间,让猫重新吃上一段时间的热量摄入受控的饮食。

 There was no significant difference in energy intake during the ad libitum phase, but body mass regain (measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry) was greater on the 0% (mean 330 g) compared with the 40% (mean 267 g, P=0.026) hydrated diet (Figure 7. Cameron et al. 2011).

在随意进食阶段能量摄入量没有显著差异,但是与吃40%含水食品的猫(均值267克,P=0.026)相比,吃含水量为0%的猫粮的猫(平均330克)体量的重获(通过双能X线骨密度仪测定)更多。

Figure 5: Changes in plasma analytes and enzyme activity with weight loss (Tvarijonaviciute et al. 2012). Box and whisker plots show plasma (A) adiponectin, (B) IGF-1, (C) glucose, (D) insulin, and (E) homeostasis glucose measurement (HOMA) before and after weight loss in 22 cats successfully completing a weight-loss programme. The boxes depict median (horizontal line) and interquartile range (top and bottom of box), the whiskers show the 10% to 90% range, and outliers are shown as separate points. Weight loss in obese cats led to significant increases in adiponectin (P=0.021) and IGF-1 (P=0.036) concentrations, whereas insulin concentration (P<0.001) and HOMA (P<0.001) both decreased significantly.
图5:减重引起的血液分析物和酶活性的变化(Tvarijonaviciute et al. 2012)。箱须图显示了22只成功完成减重训练的猫在减重前后血液中的(A)脂联素、(B)IGF-1、(C)葡萄糖、(D)胰岛素和(E)稳态葡萄糖测定值(HOMA)。箱型描绘的是中值(水平轴)和四分位差(箱型上下端),须型则显示的是10%-90%的范围,并在各个点标出了异常值。肥胖猫减重引起了脂联素(P=0.021)和IGF-1(P=0.036)浓度的显著增加,而胰岛素(P<0.001)和HOMA(P<0.001)浓度则大幅降低。

Activity levels on the 40% hydrated diet were significantly higher than on the 0% hydrated diet (Figure 8. Cameron et al. 2011). The mechanism underlying this effect is not known.

与吃含水量为0%的食物的猫相比,吃含水量为40%的食物的猫的活动水平明显高一些(图8,Cameron et al. 2011)。我们尚不清楚导致这种效果的原因。

Figure 8: Physical activity levels were significantly higher when cats were calorically restricted compared with ad libitum access to either diet, and activity levels were higher for the 40% hydrated diet compared with 0% hydrated diet during the regain phase (Cameron et al. 2011). Data are mean ± SEM, n=19.
图8:与随意进食的猫相比,热量摄入受限的猫的身体活动水平高出很多。在恢复体重阶段,与吃含水量为0%的食物的猫相比,吃含水量为40%的食物的猫的活动水平要高一些(Cameron et al. 2011)。数据为中值± SEM, n=19。

 

These results suggest that bodyweight gain is reduced and physical activity enhanced in an overfeeding situation when cats are fed a diet with reduced energy density due to the addition of 40% water.

这些结果说明,通过增加40%的水分来减少猫粮的能量密度,在过度进食的情况下,吃这种猫粮的猫增加的体重会较少,而且身体活跃性得到增强。