MARS PETCARE ACADEMY 玛氏宠物护理学院

玛氏宠物护理学院

在中国,为宠物创造一个更美好的世界

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Key Message

关键信息

WALTHAM continues to lead the way in promoting outstanding levels of pet welfare through:

威豪中心继续通过以下努力引领并促进高水平的宠物福利:

  • Providing state-of-the-art, environmentally-enriched dog accommodation that surpasses regulatory and welfare requirements and expectations.
  • 为犬提供先进的、环境丰富且远超法规和福利要求和期望的居住条件。
  •  Ensuring that Caring Science is at the forefront of everything WALTHAM does, by developing alternatives that challenge more traditional scientific procedures.
  •  提出挑战传统科学程序的方案,确保一切以关爱科学理念为先。

Background

背景情况

The WALTHAM Centre is home to approximately 160 dogs.

威豪中心容纳了大约160只犬。

A huge team of people at WALTHAM is dedicated to the daily care and welfare of the dogs. Every dog is an individual, with different needs and preferences. The carers know each and every dog by name, what they like and dislike, and how they prefer to spend their time. Knowing what is important to each dog is the key to ensuring every dog’s welfare needs are met.

在威豪中心,狗狗们一大组人为犬的日常护理和安乐而服务。每一只犬都是有着不同需求和偏好的个体。护理员知道每一只犬的名字,知道它们的好恶,知道它们喜欢如何玩耍。为了确保每一只犬的福利需求得到满足,关键要了解对每一只犬而言什么是最重要的。

Why WALTHAM is Interested

威豪中心对宠物福利感兴趣的原因

At WALTHAM, nothing matters more than the welfare of our pets.

在威豪中心,宠物的福利是第一位的。

The housing and husbandry at WALTHAM is extremely important with substantial time and monetary investment made on a continual basis to ensure that the highest standards are met and that the environment is both stimulating and comforting for our pets.

威豪中心尤其看重宠物的居住和喂养,中心持续投入了大量的时间和金钱,确保最高标准的居住和喂养条件,为宠物保障一个既放松又有适度刺激。

Creating such an environment and treating the dogs as pets is part of the WALTHAM ethos, and of prime importance for creating sound, robust, relevant science.

威豪的理念包括创造这种舒适环境,将犬作为宠物对待,对于创造一套合理、全面和实用的科学体系而言,这也是最重要的。

Approach

方法

The dog accommodation and environmental enrichment is under continual development, with Caring Science at the forefront of everything WALTHAM does.

将关爱式科学研究理念作为威豪中心开展一切工作的首位,继续改善犬的居住条件,并使居住环境丰富化。

Solution (Housing)

解决方案(居住条件)

WALTHAM provides state-of-the-art, environmentally enriched dog accommodation

威豪中心为犬提供先进的、环境丰富的居住条件

At WALTHAM the dog accommodation consists of pens that have been designed to be very flexible. The dogs live in pairs with a carefully selected pen-mate. Each spacious pen consists of an inner area that is centrally heated and provides space for sleeping and eating, with a dog flap providing 24-hour access to an outside pen. (Figure 1) Gates between adjoining pens mean that the dogs can be separated (for example for feeding) or pens can be linked together to facilitate socialisation.

在威豪中心,犬的住所包括设计灵活的犬舍。经过仔细选择,狗狗们成对生活在一起。宽敞的犬舍包括一个中央供暖的内部居住区,便于它们吃和睡;通过一扇犬门它们可以24小时前往户外区(图1)。相邻两个犬舍之间还开了门,狗狗们可以分开(以便于喂食),也可以将犬舍连通起来便于社交活动。

 

Figure 1: The dog accommodation at WALTHAM has outside pens with access to paddocks

1威豪的养犬场有户外区,设有通往围场的通道。

 

Solution (Environmental Enrichment)

解决方案(环境丰富化)

WALTHAM provides state-of-the-art, environmentally enriched dog accommodation

威豪中心为犬提供先进的、环境丰富的居住条件

For all animals, environmental enrichment is essential to allow them to express natural behaviours. This helps to ensure that the animal is more relaxed and content. For dogs, environmental enrichment takes the form of activities, training, play, socialisation and sensory stimulation.

对所有动物而言,丰富的环境是使它们表达自然行为所必需的,并且会帮助动物更加放松和满足。对犬而言,丰富的环境包括各种活动、培训、玩耍、社交和感官刺激。

At WALTHAM, each dog receives several hours of socialisation every day – including time spent with other dogs and with their handler and other people.

在威豪中心,每天每只犬都有几个小时的社交时间-包括与其他犬、牵犬师和其他人待在一起的时间。

Socialisation with other dogs is vital – not only because the dogs enjoy it, but because it hones their communication skills, which are essential to pack life. During these periods, each group of dogs is carefully selected by the carers who know each one individually. While some dogs like to spend this time playing, others prefer a quieter life, albeit in the company of other dogs. The dogs are released together into secure paddocks, where they enjoy just being dogs.

与其他犬交流是至关重要的-不仅因为犬喜欢这样,还因为这可以磨练犬的社交能力,这对于群居动物而言是很重要的。在此期间,了解每只犬状况的护理员会仔细选择每一组犬。有些犬喜欢花时间玩耍,有些犬即便有其他犬陪伴也喜欢安静点的生活。一起将这些犬放入安全的围场内,让它们自由自在地享受犬的生活。

Each dog at WALTHAM is allocated a handler, who is responsible for their training and activities. This is important because both dogs and humans like to form close bonds. The dogs all have scheduled time spent with their handler. How this time is spent varies from day to day and from dog to dog, depending on needs and the studies they are involved in. It often involves simple play (for example retrieving a ball) or more challenging activities (such as flyball or agility Figure 2). Preparing dogs for taking part in our studies also forms part of the training and socialisation programme. During this time they learn skills that are vital for taking part in studies – such as standing or lying still on a table, or being comfortable with having their mouth examined.

威豪的每只犬都指派有一位牵犬师,负责它们的培训和活动。这很重要,因为犬和人都喜欢结成密切的关系。所有犬都分配有与牵犬师一起消磨的时间。每一天,对于每一只犬来说消磨这些时间的方式都是不同的,取决于它们的需求以及参加的研究项目。通常涉及某个简单的游戏(例如捡球),或者是更具挑战性的活动(例如飞球或跳跃,见图2)。让犬做好参加研究项目的准备同样也是训练和社交活动的一部分。在此期间,它们学到了参加研究所必需的技巧-例如站在或躺在桌子上不动,或者放松让人检查嘴巴。

Figure 2: The dogs at WALTHAM enjoy many types of activities

2:威豪中心的犬享受各种活动。

 

The dogs are trained to be well-mannered. All training at WALTHAM is reward-based positive reinforcement using clicker-training. Good behaviour is rewarded, whilst bad behaviour is ignored. Until 2005, WALTHAM held the world record for the largest number of dogs sitting at once for two minutes – 76 dogs!

通过训练,狗狗们举止得当。威豪中心利用响片训练,所有培训都是以奖励为基础的正面奖赏。做对了就有奖励,做错了则被忽视。直到2005年,威豪一直保持着让数量最多的犬同时保持坐姿两分钟的世界纪录-76只犬!

A comprehensive programme is in place to socialise puppies at WALTHAM, to help them grow up into confident well-balanced dogs. For puppies born at WALTHAM this programme starts at birth.  From birth, puppies are gradually accustomed to being handled and are introduced to the sights and sounds of WALTHAM (Figure 3). At about 8 weeks of age, each puppy is assigned to a group of about six puppies and an adult dog (known as a ‘sentinel’ dog) who is known to enjoy being around and to behave well with puppies.

中心通过一个全面的项目让幼犬们学会集体生活,帮助它们成长为自信的、发展全面的犬。在威豪中心出生的幼犬一出生就参加了这一项目。从出生开始,幼犬们就逐渐适应接受培训,人们还介绍它们熟悉威豪中心的风景和声音(图3)。大约8周龄时,对每只幼犬进行分组,每组为六只幼犬加一只成犬(称之为“卫兵”犬),成犬喜欢到处玩,与幼犬相处时举止得当。

The group is given time each day to play in the paddock, with the puppies behaviour continuously monitored (to ensure no inappropriate behaviour has time to set in). In addition, all puppies attend Puppy School (30 minutes each day) where they continue to encounter a range of people and objects and mix with a variety of other puppies of various ages as well as adult dogs.

每天这组犬都可以在围场里面玩,幼犬的行为经常接受督促和指导(确保它们不会养成不良行为习惯)。此外,幼犬全都要参加幼犬学校(每天30分钟),在那里它们会遇到各种人和物,并和其他年龄组的幼犬及成犬在一起活动。

At Puppy School, people dress up in a variety of different clothes and sometimes put on wigs, hats and false beards to show the puppies that all people are friendly, whatever they look like. The puppies are also introduced to novel objects (including wheelchairs, bicycles and umbrellas) and spend time in a specially-designed socialisation room where they can experience objects such as a washing machine, television and radio. Basic obedience training is important for puppies, and is the foundation for developing sociable, confident and happy adult dogs.

在幼犬学校,人们穿着不同衣服,有时还会戴假发、帽子和粘假胡子,让幼犬知道人类不管看起来什么样子都是很友好的。人们还引导幼犬认识新奇物件(包括轮椅、自行车和雨伞),让它们待在专门设计的社交室里,在那里它们可以体验到各种事物,例如洗衣机、电视机和收音机。对幼犬而言基本的服从训练是很重要的,这也是幼犬成长为友好、自信和快乐的成犬的基础。

Figure 3: Socialisation is very important for puppies so that they grow into confident well-balanced dogs. All puppies are gradually accustomed to being handled and are introduced to the sights and sounds of WALTHAM

3:社交对于幼犬很重要,帮助它们成长为自信的、发展全面的犬。幼犬们会逐渐适应接受培训,人们还介绍它们熟悉威豪中心的风景和声音。

 

WALTHAM has a specially-designed sensory garden that the dogs visit regularly, to stimulate all their senses (Figure 4). One area gives them a chance to explore different heights, sounds, scents and floor textures. Another area contains a water feature to allow play with a random sequence of water jets.

威豪中心拥有一个专门设计的感官花园用来刺激犬的感官,狗狗们会定期来到花园(图4)。在花园里,有一片区域让犬有机会探索不同高度、声音、气味和地板纹理。另一片区域则设有水景,随机喷水,让犬可以玩水。

 

Figure 4: The specially-designed sensory garden for dogs at WALTHAM

图4:威豪中心为犬特设的感官花园

 

Solution (Caring Science)

解决方案(关爱式科学研究)

Caring Science is at the forefront of everything WALTHAM does

关爱式科学研究是威豪中心开展一切工作的首位。

Caring Science is the ethos that underpins all we do at WALTHAM. We believe that it is possible to obtain cutting edge science in a way that does not harm our pets. In fact, the Mars Petcare vision “create a better world for pets” starts with the pets at WALTHAM.  Caring Science is important to us, because we care strongly for our pets, and believe that they should be relaxed, happy, willing partners in our research. We also believe that research developed together with our contented pets is more likely to be relevant to pets in the home environment.

关爱式科学研究是支撑威豪中心所有工作的基础。我们相信以不伤害宠物的方式掌握尖端科学是有可能的。实际上,玛氏的宠物护理愿景-“为宠物创造更好的世界”-就是源于威豪中心的宠物。关爱科学对我们非常重要,因为我们希望宠物在参加研究时可以感到放松和快乐。我们还相信从心满意足的宠物身上所得到的研究成功更能适用于居家环境下的宠物。

The Caring Science approach can present WALTHAM scientists with challenges, but the reward is great. WALTHAM scientists often come up with innovative solutions that offer massive benefits because they produce relevant results which can be transferred to pets everywhere.

关爱式科学研究理念为威豪的科学家们带来了挑战,但是回报也是巨大的。威豪的科学家们经常会提出一些标新立异的解决方案,带来巨大的益处,因为这些方案所产生的结果能够传递到各个地方的宠物身上。

WALTHAM scientists continually develop alternatives that challenge more traditional scientific procedures. At WALTHAM, non-invasive urine collection systems were specially developed for dogs as an alternative to more traditional methodologies of urine collection that involve inserting a needle into the bladder. Similarly, when WALTHAM scientists were studying the effects of nutrition on skin health, they devised a technique to do this non-invasively utilising a probe that lay on the skin surface. When studies of flatulence were started, WALTHAM first developed a non-invasive system for capturing the gas, and when saliva was needed to develop solutions for better oral health, the dogs were taught to chew on cotton swabs to collect saliva samples. Often our science starts in the WALTHAM laboratory, using cultured cells, or at the desk, working with computer models of biological systems. This means that WALTHAM often finds ways around using pets for some of the work.

威豪的科学家一直在寻找更多备选方案,对更多传统的科学程序提出挑战。威豪为犬特制了无创尿液收集系统,有别于将探针刺入膀胱的传统方式。同样地,当威豪的科学家们研究营养素对皮肤健康的影响时,他们想出了一种无创检查技术,用探针放在皮肤表面上测验。开始研究肠胃气胀问题时,威豪中心首先建立了一套无创气体收集系统;当需要唾液来研究增进口腔健康的方案时,他们会教犬咬嚼棉签以收集唾液样本。通常我们的研究始于威豪的实验室,利用人工培养的细胞,或者在工作台上使用生物系统的电脑模型。这意味着威豪中心经常寻找一些绕过宠物的方式开展工作。

When a pet at WALTHAM participates in a study, time is taken beforehand to train them to work in partnership with the researchers (Figure 5). This not only minimises stress, but makes for better science too. For example, a pet-friendly measure of skin health was developed (trans-epidermal water loss) which involved parting the hair on the dog’s back and placing a probe against the skin. However, it soon became apparent that the happy wagging tails of the dogs at WALTHAM could influence the measurements. In order to produce quality data with low variability, each dog was trained to stand still for up to 10 measurements, each taking 45 seconds. This was achieved through positive reward- and clicker-based training over a number of weeks before the sampling period. This is just one example. All procedures, from urinating into specific trays to giving blood samples, benefit from a period of habituation and training. Taking the time to do this is one of the keys to WALTHAM success.

在威豪中心,当宠物参加研究时,我们会提前花时间训练它们配合研究人员(图5)。这种做法不仅会将压力降到最低,而且还有利于科学研究。例如,为了检查经皮失水情况,可以通过一种对宠物无害的方式来检查皮肤健康状况,这需要分开犬背上的毛,然后将探针贴在皮肤上。但是,我们很快发现威豪中心的狗狗们老是高兴地甩着尾巴,这样会影响测量结果。为了得到高品质低变异性的数据,要训练每只犬站着不动接受最多十项检查,每项需时45秒。在取样之前,通过数周的正面奖赏和响片训练实现了这一要求。这仅仅是其中的一个例子。所有程序,从往实验盘里排尿到收集血样,都可以得益于一段时间的适应和训练。威豪中心的成功关键在于花一定的时间开展训练。

 

Figure 5: When a pet at WALTHAM participates in a study, time is taken beforehand to train them to work in partnership

5在威豪中心,当宠物参加研究时,我们会提前花时间训练它们配合研究人员

 

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